New Jersey Attorney Ethics Investigations – The "Ten-Day Letter"


You have just received a "ten day" letter from the NJ Attorney Ethics Committee. Someone has filed a grievance against you, and you are now a response in an Ethics matter. A person identifying herself as an Investigator for the Ethics Ethics Committee has given you ten days in which to reply in writing and to provide certain records and documents. Perhaps the grievant was a client or a former client. Perhaps it was an adversary. Hopefully, it was not a judge. You are instructed to cooperate with the investigation.

At this point, you should review your E & O coverage, specifically the notice requirements and terms of coverage. As required, advise your E & O carrier of the pending investigation. Not only may they provide counsel for you in an appropriate case, but your failure to advise them may result in forfeiture of coverage in a potential malpractice suit down the line. With or without insurance, you do not have much time to respond Ethics.

Intuition says you should exercise your right to remain silent; practice tells you to try to forestall the investigation. Should you cooperate with your attorneys? Suppose you believe that your documents may actually result in the filing of criminal charges against you? What if the investigator asks you questions which truthful answers would be an admission of crime. Can they make you testify? What can they do if you do not? What about the Fifth Amendment?

There are a few facts you should know. The Office of Attorney Ethics (OAE), under the state Supreme Court, is liable for attorney discipline in New Jersey. It investigates all grievances against all attorneys. If the OAE decides that your case requires immediate attention, or if you happen also to be a defender in criminal proceedings, the ethics case may be handled directly by the OAE in Trenton. In such a case, the Investigator who contacted you is probably a paid professional. Sometimes, the case originates "automatically" when an Attorney Trust Account check bounces. Those cases, too, are generally handled out of Trenton. It is not often clear from the first letter or phone call.

Most grievances, however, are investigated by the District Ethics Committees, (DEC), which investigators are attorney volunteers in districts around the state. Following its investigation, the DEC will determine whether discipline may be required. If so, a formal Complaint will be filed. Other times, the grievance is dismissed. Sometimes, in minor cases, you may be offered diversion, a non-disciplinary, conditional resolution of the case. In all cases, you absolutely have the right to a full evidentiary hearing on the charges.

It is important that you know that the OAE has the power to summarize suspend your license purely for your refusal to respond to the ten-day letter. Usually, you will be given a few extra days to complain, if you need them, but your additional or continued failure to cooperate with the investigation (or even the mere appearance of such) can result in additional measures against you, including, in appropriate cases, summary disbarment. While the Ethics Committee can not put you in jail, it can do something that the criminal courts can not: it may penalize you for "pleading the fifth". Unlike the trier of fact in a criminal case, an Ethics Committee Hearing Panel and the rest of the OAE, and even the Supreme Court, may draw a negative inference from your non-cooperation or your failure to appear or produce evidence or from your refusal to testify.

That is because there is no Constitutional, or even statutory right, to practice law – there only a license, not unlike a driver's license. Where a trade or profession must be regulated by the state, and the practitioners must be licensed, the state may pose conditions and restrictions on that license. Accused violators do not get a jury, and the standard of proof is "clear and convincing," not the Constitution's "no reasonable doubt" standard.

Of course, if your ethics case also involves (or may involve) criminal charges against you or your client or someone in your firm, consult immediately with an attorney who has appropriate expertise. The issues are complex, the stakes are high, and there is no standard approach.

New Jersey Attorney Ethics decisions invariably give credit to attorneys who cooperate fully with investigations against them. They generally discriminate attorneys who do not. While you should always have experienced counsel whenever you are the focus of an ethics grievance, if you wish to continue to practice law, cooperation with Ethics is a no-brainer.


Juvenile Court in New Jersey


Juvenile cases in New Jersey differ significantly from cases involving adults. The goal of the juvenile justice system, the rights which juvenile defenders have, the procedures which police and courts must follow, the facilities in which juveniles are missing, the roles of the defense lawyer and the judge, and many other aspects of juvenile jurisdiction are all significantly different from the adult criminal system.

Even the Juvenile Court is separate. Juvenile cases are handled in the Family Division, not the Criminal Division, of Superior Court. In a growing number of counties, such as Essex, Family Court matters are heard in a separate building from the criminal courts.

The goal of Juvenile Court is to rehabilitate. By definition, the adult penal system contains an element of punishment. The juvenile system, on the other hand, is designed to rehabilitate the youth, rather than punish the criminal act. Thus, the case will not be called "State vs. Jane Doe", but "The State of New Jersey in the Interest of Jane Doe, a juvenile."

A juvenile case begins with a determination of probable cause. When a person under the age of 18 is accused of committing an offense, the matter is brought to a court's attention. This is usually the municipal court, and the matter is bought usually, although not always, by the police. Then, a judge or court official such as the Court Administrator or Clerk must determine that there is probable cause to think that the juvenile has been delinquent, s / he can be taken into custody.

Juvenile charges are welcomed in the county where the juvenile resides, rather than where the indemnity occurred. In appropriate cases, a judge will grant the juvenile's lawyer's motion to transfer the case to the county of the oath. While the New Jersey's twenty-one counties should strive for uniformity in the handling of juvenile cases, this is not always achievable.

Juveniles are not arrested; they are missed. They are, according to law, taken in into custody for their own protection. Parents or guardians must be informed without delay. Juveniles may not be missed in the same facility, or even the same police car, as adult suspects. They will be given a "detention hearing" by the morning following their detention to determine whether it will be safe to return the juvenile to the custody of the parent or guardian while the matter is pending.

While in custody, a juvenile is brought before a judge at least once every three weeks, to review the need for continued detention. Sometimes juveniles are released to home, but subject to home confinement, electronic monitoring, curfews, continued employment or school, or other conditions imposed by the court.

A form called a "5A Notice" is sent to the parent (s) or guardian early in the case. This is the Family Court's summons for the parent (s) and juvenile to appear and also to file an application for a Public Defender. The form is a bit confusing, and the various counties treat the 5A hearings differently.

A juvenile must have an attorney, and a Public Defender will be appointed for a juvenile who family can not afford to retain a "private" lawyer. Public defenders are lawyers who are available to low-income families at little or no cost. They are usually experienced in juvenile law and are familiar with the courts. Many of them are excellent lawyers. In most NJ counties defenders and their parent (s) or guardian (s) must appear at the "5A Hearing," even if they intend to hire a lawyer, as the state or the court may require "take" information or procedures such as fingerprinting.

Juveniles have no right to a trial by jury; juvenile trials are heard by a judge without a jury. The rules of trial in juvenile court are different from adult court, and at sentencing, the judge has many options that are unavailable to adult defenders. Most juvenile cases are settled, however without a trial.

New Jersey's juvenile justice system provides many diverse options for rehabilitating the youth. The system drives to understand each defensive and to treat each as an individual. In counties such as Essex and Union, where there are several sentences sitting in the Juvenile part, repeat offenders are usually scheduled to appear before the same judge, often with the same prosecutor. In appropriate cases, there are programs and plea bargains that allow for dismissals and downgrades, intensive supervision, probation, job training, substance abuse remediation, pyromania counseling, anger management, and much more. An experienced juvenile attorney can often help fashion a resolution that makes sense.

Not all juveniles are tried in juvenile court. Some are "waived up" to adult court where they receive adult court treatment and are exposed to adult penalties. Among the factors a court will consider in determining whether to waive a juvenile up to adult court are the gravity of the crime, the juvenile's age, history, gang affiliation, and the involvement of "adult" instrumentalities such as firearms, motor vehicles, and sexual activity. Offenders convicted as juveniles are not sent to prison, but to places with names like The Training School for Boys, and custodial juvenile sentences do not exceed five years. Cases that are waived up expose the youth to penalies ranging to twenty years in prison, and even more.

Juvenile records, that is, records of the juvenile offense, "disappear" once the juvenile turns eighteen. That is not exactly true – the records remain available for certain purposes, but may not generally be disclosed. Subject to some very rare exceptions, no employers, schools or government officials may inquire about a juvenile record. Juvenile records may be expunged, later on, in most cases. Consult an attorney.

Experienced New Jersey juvenile attorneys know that the juvenile justice system favors the youth who make efforts to improve, and who shows promise for a law-abiding future. Supportive families, success in school, part-time or full-time employment, involvement organized community, religious or athletic activities all suggest that the youth has a significant likelihood of rehabilitation. Juveniles with these advantages benefit most of the non-penal philosophy of the juvenile system.

Families seeking a private attorney should look for an attorney experienced in juvenile court matters. The family can help the case by appearing in court, by trying to keep the juvenile out of trouble, and by providing alternative activities and moral support to the juvenile. The juvenile's attorney should work towards a resolution that is realistic and rehabilitative, one that has a chance of succeeding. Sensitive handling of juvenile criminal matters may be the difference that saves an imperiled juvenile.


New Jersey's Tax Exemption And Abatement Laws


PL1991, c.431 with final retroactive amendments effective August 5, 1992 consolidated, into one more flexible law, the various long term tax exemptions laws under which municipalities may agree with private entities to undertake redevelopment projects in return for tax exemptions.

PL1991, c.441, effective for the first full tax year following after January 18, 1992 enactment, consolidated the various five-year tax abatement and exemption laws into one, more standardized law to govern all tax abatement and exemption regardless of the type of structure.

Long Term Tax Exemption Law

Prior to 1993, which was the first full year of operation governed by the new Long Term Tax Exemption Law, under the provisions of NJSA40: 55C-40, the "Urban Renewal Corporation and Association Law of 1961," commonly known as the Fox- Lance Act, a qualified municipality (a municipality with "areas in need of rehabilitation") could abate from 15 to 20 years the taxes on newly constructed industrial, commercial, cultural, or residential projects of a corporation, with profits in excess of the limited profits returned to the municipality, or from 30 to 35 years for condominium projects. Condominium projects were given 30 to 35 years in order to provide a realistic period for permanent financing. Also, prior to 1993 under the provisions of NJSA55: 16-1 et seq., The "Limited-Dividend Nonprofit Housing Corporation or Association Law," a qualified municipality could abate for up to 50 years the taxes on newly constructed housing. Further, under NJSA55: 14I-1 et seq., A qualified municipality could abate for up to 50 years the taxes on newly constructed senior housing. Lastly, prior to 1993, under the provisions of NJSA40: 55C-77, the "Urban Renewal Nonprofit Corporation Law of 1965," basically the same types of properties and projects as the Fox-Lance Act could have abated for 20 to 25 years with all profits being returned to the municipality. In all cases under these property tax exemption laws in lieu of tax payments were required.

Commencing in 1993 the provisions of NJSA40A: 20-1 et seq. permitted a qualified municipality to abate the taxes on properties and projects in the same way the pre 1993 law did with the following notable exceptions:

A new, flexible in-lieu of tax formula was established with a phasing-in of payments in lieu of taxes to occur under both the percent of gross rental formula and the percentage of total project cost formula.

The formulas for computing payment in lieu of taxes for both office projects and housing projects were changed. The minimum annual service charge for office buildings was reduced from 15 to 10 percent of the annual gross revenues of the project or units of the project. Municipalities retained the option of computing the payment in lieu of taxes at no less than 2 percent of the total project cost or total project units cost. For housing projects the annual service charge was changed from a minimum of 15 percent to a maximum of 15 percent of annual gross revenue of the project or from a minimum 2 percent to a maximum 2 percent of the total project cost or total project unit cost.

The payment in lieu of tax formulas remains basically unchanged for all other types of industrial, commercial or cultural projects.

Five-Year Exemption and Abatement Law

Prior to 1993, which was the first full year of operation under the new Five-Year Exemption and Abatement Law, there were three types of property to which a qualified jurisdiction (a jurisdiction with "areas in need of rehabilitation") could grant a partial exemption and abatement for a five-year period.

These property types included:

Homeowner improvements (including additions and enlargements) made to one-unit or two-unit residential dwellings that were more than 20 years old. As determined by ordinance the first $ 4,000, $ 10,000 or $ 15,000 of increased value due to improvement on each unit could be exempted from taxation (see NJSA 54: 4-3.72 to 3.79).

Commercial and industrial improvements and construction projects (with less than a 30% increase in building volume) could have the full assessed value of the improvement carried out with payments in lieu of taxes made at 2% of project cost or 15% of annual gross revenues or an in-lieu of tax payment phased-in. (see NJSA 54: 4-3.94to 3.112).

Multiple lodging improvements or conversion of other types of structures to multiple dwellings could have up to 30% of the full value of the improvement or conversion alteration exempted. No in-lieu of tax payment was required (see NJSA 54: 4-3.121 to 3.129).

Commencing in 1993 the provisions of NJSA 40A: 21-1 et seq., The "Five-Year Exemption and Abatement Law," which consolidated all provisions of the previous five-year abatement statutes, permitted a qualified municipal to grant partial exemptions and abatements on residential dwellings, non-residential structures and multiple dwellings in the same way the pre 1993 law did, with the following important exceptions made to the new law:

A new, single definition of "areas in need of rehabilitation" was established to govern all exemptions and abatements which, if chosen, could enable an entitlement to be designated as an area in need of rehabilitation (thus permitting new structures to facilitate infill construction ).

The new five-year law also allowed, for the first time, tax abatement and exemptions for new construction of single family and multi-family housing units and non-residential structures rather than just improvements or enlargements to such properties.

The new law also increased the permitted maximum tax exemptions for the value added by an improvement from $ 4,000, $ 10,000, and $ 15,000 to $ 5,000, $ 15,000 and $ 25,000, respectively, as the municipal ordinance may specify.


New Jersey Home Builders


New Jersey is located in the northeastern part of the US. The most densely populated state in the entire US; New Jersey is bound by New York City and Philadelphia and is an extended part of their metropolitan areas. According to the US Census Bureau estimates of 2006, New Jersey has a population of 8,707,739. Apart from being the most densely populated, New Jersey is also the second wealthiest state in the US.

The south, central, and northeast parts of the state have a humid subtropical climate, while the northwest has a humid continental climate, with slightly cooler temperatures due to higher elevation. The state has the highest percentage of millionaire households. New Jersey has a progressive economy centered on the pharmaceutical industry, chemical development, telecommunications, food processing, electric equipment, printing and publishing, and tourism.

As a major center for tourism, New Jersey offers quite a useful for tourists. The major places of attraction are the Liberty Science Center, the Maywood Station Museum, Montclair Art Museum, Morris Museum, Newark Museum and the Thomas Edison Museum.

Going by its thick population, New Jersey is a popular living destination for many, with several quality homebuilders working together in making your dream come true. Here is a quick checklist:

K Hovnanian Homes: K. Hovnanian Homes carries with itself a legacy of success, financial muscle and award-winning standards of homebuilding quality with an eye on enticing customer satisfaction. Do a Google search for K. Hovanian Homes in New Jersey for more information.

Ryan Homes: For over 60 years, Ryan Homes has earned a reputation of building superior customer service, innovative, award-winning designs, quality construction, affordable prices and unique communities in prime locations. From the first time buyer, to the move up buyer, to the empty nester / move down buyer, buyers of all ages and stages of life can find exactly what they are looking for in a Ryan Home. For more information, Google search for Ryan Homes in New Jersey.

Beazer Homes: Beazer Homes is another prime homebuilder of New Jersey. It is also one of the top 10 homebuilders in the whole of US in terms of the homes closed. Beazer Homes have a wide range to offer its customers and its flagship product is eSMART that has been built across locations. Do a Google search for Beazer Homes in New Jersey for detailed information.

Pulte Homes: Pulte Homes is an established homebuilder in New Jersey. PulteGroup has been providing the American Dream of homeownership to families for 60 years. Search for Pulte Homes in New Jersey for more information.


Obtaining and Defending Against Restraining Orders in New Jersey


A final restraining order can have serious consequences on a person. On the other hand, it can possibly save the life or improve the life of a domestic violence victim. Either way, male or female, husband, boyfriend, girlfriend and so forth, the courts follow case-law and the domestic violence statute. Aside from the obvious, whether you were dating, were married, are married, have children together or not, there are twelve key factors in determining whether a temporary restraining order should become, final. Crimes that are covered under the prevention of domestic violence act are:

  1. Assault NJSA 2C: 12-1
  2. Criminal Mischief NJSA 2C: 17-3
  3. Harassment NJSA 2C: 33-4
  4. Terroristic Threats NJSA 2C: 12-3
  5. Criminal Sexual Contact NJSA 2c: 14-1 and / or 2C: 14-3
  6. Sexual Assault NJSA 2C: 14-1
  7. Kidnapping NJSA 2C: 13-1
  8. Stalking NJSA 2C: 12-10 and / or 10.1
  9. Lewdness NJSA 2C: 14-4
  10. Criminal Trespass NJSA 2C: 18-3
  11. Burglary NJSA 2C: 18-2
  12. False Imprisonment NJSA 2C: 13-3

So while these are the list of crimes that are covered in domestic violence cases, committing one crime does not need to mean that a final order will be issued. A domestic violence hearing is not a criminal proceeding but a civil one held in the various family courts in New Jersey. Criminal charges can be filed at the police station if the victim calls the need for immediate police intervention or even after the incident occurred. In the local area we serve: Judge Mark Baber, Judge Gerard Breland and Judge Maureen Mantineo of Hudson are the judges who decide restraining order hearings. Elswehere, Judge Beacham, Judge Epstein, Judge Harris, Judge Gaus, Judge Siegel Hear the cases out of Essex and Bergen.

To determine whether a final order is required, the Judge must view all the admitted evidence (police reports, medical records, pictures, records, and any other evidence you may have). The victim will testify first and try to make the case as to why a final order is needed. The victim is also allowed to testify to whether there has been a history of domestic violence between the parties wherever reported or unreported. The Defendant then has the opportunity to cross-examine the witness or witnesses. A witness's credibility is a key factor and is on center stage as to whether the Judge believes the testimony. At that point, the Defendant can take the stand, can call witnesses to refute or impeach the testimony of the victim and then the Judge will decide.

The factors a judge must consider as to whether a final order should be granted as from credibility, proof and other factors is:

  1. The previous history of domestic violence between the parties, including threats, harassment and physical abuse;
  2. The existence of immediate danger to person or property;
  3. The financial circumstances of the plaintiff and defense;
  4. The best interest of the victim and any child;
  5. The existence of a verifiable order of protection from another jurisprudence.

So while you may think yelling at the victim in the past or getting into an argument with the victim was simply a relationship dispute, if framed correctly, it can be damning. It is critical to prepare for a final restraining order hearing because once a final order is issued, it is final absent good cause shown.


The Mystery of New Jersey's Hookerman


Fantastic stories of ghostly lights which frequently appear near railroad tracks and, according to popular imagination, are transported by the spirits of long-presumed conductors have become a permanent and tantalizing feature of American folklore. Commonly referred to as "spook lights," the phenomenon has captured the imagination of Fortean investigators around the world.

According to recent estimates, there exist more than 60 separate locations throughout the United States alone where this strange phenomenon occurs. The "Maco lights," of North Carolina, have, by far, received the greatest attention of all, and are said to have been first sighted during the 18th Century.

Others, though less familiar, are equally well-documented, with many of the contemporary sightings having their roots in local Indian legends, such as the Hornet Spook Light, found in the southern midwest region of the country. Here, as in countless other cases, the belief persists that the lights are concrete proof of psychological survival after death, and that the discarnate personalities of dead railroad conductors and ancient tribal leaders are with us today.

Over the last five years, however, many researchers have taken to strip away the thick layers of myth and superstition which surround the spook light mystery, and have begun to employ sophisticated scientific equipment and methods in their research efforts. One such research group, Vestigia, has been concentrating its attention on strange lights observed in northwestern New Jersey, in an area known as Long Valley. Their investigation and findings, along with material gathered from other researchers in the field, have yielded some provocative answers to the spook light mystery.

The spook lights of Long Valley have been actively reported since the turn of the century. One particular section of the High Bridge Railroad is the focus of the activity, a stretch of railroad which is now owned by Con Rail. The spur was originally built in the mid-18th Century, and was, for a time, a bustling link between the iron-rich Long Valley area and the main line of the New Jersey Central Railroad as Chester, NJ The High Bridge Railroad was built by mine owners for the transfer of ore; the line later treated both passengers and freight until the 1930s. Today the line is an infrequently used freight spur.

The legend of this local spook light is, indeed, colorful, and conforms faithfully to the mythic storyline found in many similar cases. A brakeman of the High Bridge Railroad is supposedly to have lost his hand in an accident caused by a mechanical malfunction. Mentally unbalanced by the trauma of the accident, he walked the tracks near the site of the mishap with a lantern swinging from a hook which replaced his lost hand. One night, legend has it, that hapless figure, while searching for his lost limb on the tracks, was stuck by an on training train, and immediately killed.

It was believed that the lights appeared over the High Bridge Railroad were a psychic re-creation of that tragic night. The "Hookerman's" lantern sways over the tracks, then, suddenly vanishes as he is once again fooled by the approaching locomotive.

The High Bridge legend is almost identical to others across the country, both in reported phenomena and folklore. In almost all cases, the lights appear suddenly and at random, but seldom during heavy rain. The light itself, often a dull yellow, flickers much like a lantern, swinging from side to side like a pendulum. Generally it appears several inches to a few feet above the ground, and seess to move toward the observer in uncanny silence.

In one isolated incident, a young high school student was said to have been severely burned by the bizarre light, though this report ha still to be confirmed. What is confirmed, however, is that the phenomenon is genuine, and has been reported by hundreds of people since the turn of the century.

At Long Valley, the researchers of Vestigia undertook a preliminary study of the spook lights in 1976, studying the history of the area, the High Bridge Railroad, and any accidents that could have been linked to the Hookerman legend. It was learned that Long Valley was rural farmland until 1850, when iron ore began to be mined in the area. The High Bridge Railroad was, at first, a short spur that was used to transport ore from the mines to the foundry, and was actively used until 1885, when the mines began to cut back on operations. Sometimes the railroad added several spurs, to the original Chester branch that ran to Long Valley. It was this spur that became the center of Vestigia's study. By 1899, the railroad was renamed the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad, and ran passenger operations until 1934. The line was still in use for freight until 1960. Today, there is little activity on the spur, which is now part of the Jersey Central Railroad owned by Conrail.

The area is incredibly rich in folklore, including several tragedies associated with both mining and railroad operations. Many of these casualties are on record, but nothing in the records parallels the legend of the Hookerman, or gives any hint as to his identity, if he did, in the fact, exist.

Representatives from Vestigia collected background information from local residents about the legend, including several accounts that recommended the Hookerman was hospitalized at a local institution for the insane after his accident. Local hospital records and old railroad documents were carefully examined. The researchers even visited the local mental hospitals in search of the true identity of the Hookerman, but nothing could be found to link the legend of Long valley to reality.

Even if the Hookerman was the product of overactive local imaginations, the spook lights of Long Valley were certainly not. Researchers visited the area several times and each time they were able to see the Hookerman's infamous "lantern." Although the size, shape, speed of movement, and color varied from sighting to sighting, one thing was certain – the phenomenon was authentic and reiteratedly observable. The directors of Vestigia then began the arduous task of amassing the technical materials, test equipment, and personnel necessary to study the phenomenon properly.

The first studies of the lights were scheduled for the fall of 1976 and the list of necessary equipment was intensive. Included were cameras, Geiger counters, methane gas sniffers devices, oscilloscopes, a Vascar radar unit, recording apparatus, thermometers, walkie-talkies, and assorted auxiliary equipment.

The team, led by Bill Wagner, was working on the theory that, if the lights could be seen, they should be recordable, photogenic and measurable. To that end, the team, 16 in all, amassed their equipment, much of it at their own expense. Next, the researchers selected the location for the study – a one mile stretch of railroad track, a virtual straightaway, intersected at its midpoint by a dirt road and bordered by two major roads.

While team members worked on collecting their gear, other Vestigia investigators secured the necessary releases, and received the cooperation of all authorities involved. Conrail was contacted, and permission was granted to use its right of way for the tests. A local resident who was house was in close proximity to the railroad tracks was contacted, and agreed to make power available from his home to the central post during the experiments.

On the night of November 20, 1976, the first of the field experiments were initiated, with three outposts set up. For the first time in Long Valley, the Hookerman's light was going to be photographed, measured, and permanently recorded. The team assembled on the night of the initial test was composed of individuals from all disciplines and backgrounds. Within the group were experts in electronics, meteorology, physics, optics, photography, chemistry, and mathematics. What distinguished Vestigia's study from any other was the quality and amount of technical expertise and equipment amassed from its study. A total of 10,000 man-hours were spent in the search, and the value of the equipment altogether over $ 30,000.

What follows is a brief description of the first night of study into the Long valley spook lights. The investigation continues in the area, and Vestigia is currently collaborating with other research groups and universities in its probe.

On the night of the investigation, 4,000 feet of ground antenna wire was laid between the rails, and attached to an amplifier and oscilloscope which would detect variations in electrical frequency and amplitude. Other cables were attached directly to the rails to act as a capacitance test; anything metallic between or over the rails would register on a readout device in the equipment van. The Geiger counter was positioned at the presumed "hot spot," and it, too, was wired into a readout in the command post. Other devices included a methane gas detector, and a parabolic listening device.

At Post Two (level with the command post), a group of observers on the track manned the Vascar radar unit as well as cameras which were loaded with infra-red sensitive film, and a motion picture camera containing ultra-fast film. Post One and Post Three observers, located a half-mile to the right and left, respectively, were armed with cameras, binoculars, and radio communicators.

At approximately 10 pm, researchers at the control van reported drastic fluctuations on their instruments. Researchers at Post Three simultaneously observed a small, distinct light that started them with its sudden and unanticipated appearance. They described it as yellowish, of low magnitude, and from five to six inches in diameter. It hovered over the tracks, about a foot above the ground, and was positioned between Post One and the control vans. Cameras clicked, and recording devices were quickly activated. One puzzling thing occurred, however. Although Post Three was in visual contact with the object, and Post Two was clearly recording it electronically and had activated its cameras to photograph the phenomenon, observers at Post One had no visual contact with the light.

The oscilloscope, and other electronic measuring devices, recorded changes in the electromagnetic field of the area in which the light appeared, as well as discharges of electrical activity.

During the appearance of the light, the oscilloscope recorded a dramatic reaction for a period of one minute and 50 seconds. Amplitude varied from 1.5 volts to 2.5 volts, while a normal background signal is only 4. volts at 60 cycles. During this time the normal 60 cycles range swelled to well over 40,000 cycles.

These statements obviously stated that whatever the observers were seeing, whatever the cameras were recording, were capable of producing a dramatic change in the electrical activity of the area.

Other equipment did not immediately respond to the sighting; no radiation was evident at the time of the incident. Although there were noticeable reactions in the rail capacitance tests, both the test and the radiation indicators became active after the sighting. One thing was certain: for approximately one minute and 50 seconds, the legend of the Hookerman became objective reality, and staged a performance for the most sophisticated audience in its history.

As soon as the phenomenon occurred, it disappeared, and the team began to run through the tests to find any possible explanation for the incident. The observers at Post One never obtained visual contact with the object between them and the command post, but all tests, with the exception of the rail capacitance test, verified that the phenomenon had, indeed, physically occurred.

Team leaders checked the apparatus responsible for the rail capacitance test and discovered why it had not responded at the time of the sighting. It seems that one of the connections to the track had been knocked loose by some of the onlookers earlier in the evening.

At approximately 10:45 PM, a full ten minutes after the visual sightings of the light had ceased, test equipment used to record radiation began to show active readings from the track area. The Geiger counter recorded these readings for about five seconds before returning to its normal level. This occurred again nearly four minutes later, and persisted for seven seconds. There was a third and final recurrence 15 minutes following the visual sighting, this time lasting over 10 seconds.

The team worked on past midnight, hoping for a possible replay of the phenomenon, but all was quiet. Finally, at one am, the team leaders called it a night, yet the most dramatic proof of the evening would not be noticeable until the photographs of the light were developed.

Two independent cameras at Post Two, near the control van, photographed an image, using two different types of film. A total of six frames of regular black and white, and seven frames of infrared were taken. Each frame reveals a definite image – a glowing ball of light. The black and white film shows a pinpoint of light, while the infrared shows a more detailed image. The black and white film (Tri-X) which was shot at 1 / 1250th of a second, shows only a light source, similar to that noticed by the observers' naked eyes. The infrared film was exposed at 10 seconds per frame, and provides far more detail. This furnished us with important insight into the light range of the object, the film images showing density not discernible in normal black and white photographs.

What, however, does all of this prove? In what way do Vestigia's findings contribute to an overall understanding of the spook light mystery. Just how have they succeeded in deflating the widespread claims of bodily survival.

To answer these questions, it is necessary to enter the realm of geophysical science.

It is fairly common knowledge that when certain types of quartz-bearing rocks are subjected to stress from within the Earth, an electrical potential results. This principle, referred to as the piezoelectric effect, is applied to telephone receivers as well as microphone transmitters, in which pressure from sound waves produce electrical responses in crystals. Physicists David Finkelstein and JR Powell, of New York, vigorously explored the phenomenon in 1970, and concluded that stress accumulated in rocks over a period of years may change in intensity very slowly just prior to major earthquake activity. They further hypothesized that such stress may be capable of establishing an electrical field while discharges of electricity would ionize the air in the area into visible light.

Intrigued by this curious theory, Vestigia investigators carefully examined geodesic maps of New Jersey, and discovered that a major fault, the Ramapo Border Fault, runs through Peapack in northern New Jersey and passes within a mile of Indian Point, NY It was also learned that since 1962 no fewer than 33 earthquakes have occurred along that fault, with a sizable portion in close proximity to the Long Valley area. After exhaustive study and field investigation, Bill Wagner and his associates within Vestigia became convinced that a definite correlation exists between the appearance of the light and local seismic activity. Through careful observation and documentation, they have succeeded in establishing, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the Long valley lights

persistently and predictably preceded reports of local earthquake activity, and are ultimately dependent upon natural, physical principles. Many, if not all, of the mysteries associated with the Hookerman have been disregarded.

For instance, the railroad bed at Long Valley is composed of granite, an extremely good conductor of electricity. Wagner has noted that the phenomenon is most prevalent in Long Valley either before or after changes in weather, and he cites barometric pressure as a logical correlative factor. As for the tendency of the light to recede as a human agent approaches, Vestigia believes it is foolish to automatically describe intelligent behavior to the light when a more sound and reasonable explanation exists. It is reasonably, they claim, that either the delicate field within the area is disrupted by the body's own electrical charge, or purely that the static charge of the light itself seeks the natural ground of the approaching human and harmlessly discharges to the earth. But what about the radioactivity? Wagner and his co-workers suspect that the abnormal radiation recorded during their investigations of the light is associated with the presence of radon, an inert, natural gas, which is apparently bled off during earthquake activity.

The movement of the light across the tracks, though a bit more difficult to explain, has been linked by scientists to subsurface stress forces within a dynamic state of displacement. The spook light, according to informed speculation, is simply following the local fault lines, rift zones, and other rock strata that actually dissipate the stress. Dr. Michael Persinger, in his work, Space-Time Transients and Unusual Events, argues that "since the locus of the subsurface sources exists in a three-dimensional space, any movement of this source would have been deflected, like a 'transformation of axes, on the surface by the luminosity. " Persinger maintains that the light's handsome movement, whether pendulum-like or vertical, is dependent upon the source's subsurface position.

Wagner and his team members are in full agreement with the findings of Persinger, and are currently refining their research techniques at Long Valley. They are confident that with additional research and investigation, earthquake prediction, based on the observation and the scrutiny of these spook lights, may evolve into a more precise and accurate science.

Due to Vestigia's pioneering research on the spook light mystery, major universities and governmental agencies have begun to cooperate with the group in its probe of this highly elusive, but natural phenomenon. As for the legend of the "Hookerman," local residents appear to be accepting the conventional statements advanced by Vestigia. It would seem as though the colorful story centered around this mythic figure has begun to lose much of its luster, and that superstition, at least for the community of Long Valley, has been firmly replaced by truth.


Fighting a Temporary Restraining Order in New Jersey or Dissolving a Final Order in NJ


Domestic Violence and the tools that have been created to prevent continued violence and harassment in New Jersey have become quite effective compared to how domestic violence charges were handled 20 years ago. Today a victim can not only seek a criminal charge, but can also seek a FINAL restraining order in the State of New Jersey which as its name implies is FINAL, forever. Today we will touch upon how to prevent getting a final restraining order in the first place and if you lose and have a final order levied against you, how to remove or dissolve it.

In New Jersey, domestic violence covers criminal acts against your spouse, your partner, your former partner, a household member, someone you once dated and so forth. The criminal acts include: assault, sexual assault, harassment, terrorist threats, homeless, kidnapping, criminal restraint, false imprimination, criminal sexual contact, lewdness, criminal mischief, criminal trespass and stalking. Many people can be charged with one or two charges, others can face eight charges or more at once! For a restructuring order in New Jersey, even if someone is found to have committed an act of domestic violence, that does not mean that the person will automatically get a final restraining order against them. There are many factors in determining if a final order is needed.

Some of the main factors in determining if a final restraining order is needed are:

  1. Previous history of domestic violence between the parties (this includes threats, harassment, physical harm / abuse.
  2. The existence of immediate danger to the victim's person or property.
  3. Best interest of victim and any children involved.
  4. Existence of an order of protection from another State.

Now while, the previous history is very important, if one-act alone is egregious enough, a final order can be given. Fighting against the possibility of a final restraining order is difficult at times. Unlike criminal court where you have months if not years to prepare, maintaining order hearings are usually heard within thirty days after the service on the defender. Because of this, the defendant and his attorney must begin gathering evidence to show the defensive in a positive light, to show the defensive defending him or herself (if applicable), any evidence demonstrating instigation or a motive by the victim to push the defensive over the edge. While I know there are people in this world that would harm someone for no reason, I do believe the majority of people who are involved in a fight or argument are in that situation because it takes two to tango and it is not simply one person's fault .

The Defendant has the right to call witnesses, has the right not to testify, has the right to cross-examine the victim and any of the victim's witnesses. The standard of proof in a final restraining order hearing in New Jersey is lower than that which is used in criminal court and is called the preponderance of the evidence standard rather than the beyond a reasonable doubt as used in criminal courts.

The other calls and emails I receive fro people through the country who have a New Jersey Final Order against them is, how do I get rid of this order that has affected my life in so many ways? There are a few ways to compel a Judge to dismiss the final restraining order and some of the factors the Judge considers in that case are:

  1. Consent of the victim to lift the order
  2. The victim's fear of the defender;
  3. Nature of the relationship today
  4. The number of attempted convictions
  5. Other violent criminal acts by the defender
  6. The good faith reason the victim still opposes the dismissal.

While it is not easy to defend a person in a final restraining order or to have a final order removed, it certainly can be done under the right circumstances. When attempting to vacate a final order, the Defendant must order the transcript from the original final restraining order hearing.

In conclusion, despite what is spread and said on television, New Jersey is tough on domestic violence. If you are a victim or have been accused, we strongly suggest you get legal representation in your area.


Where Does Bubble Tea in New York and New Jersey Originate From?


Bubble Tea aka Boba Tea’s original origins come from the “Chun Shui Tang” Shop in Taiwan during the early 1980’s. The founder – Liu Han-Chieh was observing how Japanese folk would serve cold coffee and applied the same concept but to his iced tea.
Liu Han-Chieh also, claimed that while dabbling with tea – using cold milk and adding an array of different flavored syrups, fruits and tapioca pearls, he created Bubble Tea.
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In the 1990’s it really became popular across different areas in East and Southeast Asia …
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It has many names. Some of the other names often used for this rate include:

  • Boba
  • Pearl Milk
  • Bubble Milk
  • Boba Juice
  • Tapioca
  • Momi Milk
  • Q
  • Boba Nai Chai
  • Milk
  • Pearl
  • and a ton more!

In 2006 Bubble Tea in New York City and New Jersey was established by Gong Cha, which happens to be one of the most reputable brands worldwide. In fact, Gong Cha in New York City and New Jersey holds the highest prestige among other brands and shops internationally. Gong Cha is well known in the industry and by consumers for its quality teas and impossible service.
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Gong Cha Shops were first founded in 2006 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Gong Cha immersed immensely into the Bubble Tea market and acquired it with their premium, quality teas and other products and services offered by Gong Cha in New York City and in New Jersey shops.
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Gong Cha in Taiwanese means “tribute tea for the emperor,” which is an ideal name for such a highly successful and regarded brand, which caters and takes pride in their products and the services they offer to their loyal customers.
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The fact of the matter is that Bubble Tea has made its way into popular culture in the streets of New York City and New Jersey. It is considered to be a street food. However, one of the very cool things about Bubble Tea in New York City and in New Jersey is that it’s bridging cultures as Bubble Tea becomes more accessible to the public.
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Bubble Tea comes in an array of fruit flavors. You can choose from a variety of teas. Moreover, you can either take it with or without milk. In addition, you can also, choose the type of syrup you would like in your tea and you can either add jelly or tapioca pearls into your beverage. However, it is recommended that you try your first Bubble Tea with tapioca pearls, as the tapioca pearls are what made a complete sensation in Taiwan to begin with.
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Originally, It was mainly drank by school kids in Taiwan. Although, that is not the case anymore, especially in New York City and in New Jersey, with Gong Cha shops in the areas – where many adults indulge themselves in flavor filled Bubble Tea. These are served with oddly, thick straws, which were designed to scoop up the tapioca pearls or jelly.
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Bubble Tea in New York City and in New Jersey happens to be one of the most popular teas in their shops, because Gong Cha shops is well known for its great quality and taste. Gong Cha in New York City and New Jersey shops serve Bubble Tea with organic milk, homemade syrups and other natural and healthy alternatives, which will make your drink extremely healthy, while remaining favorite and more than pleasant to drink. At Gong Cha USA located in New York City & New Jersey – customers can select the sugar levels that they want in their drink.
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Other Facts About Bubble Tea in New York City and New Jersey:

Asides from tapioca balls you can also, add jelly, pudding or popping. For Puddings – the whole pudding can be blended into the drink, rather than adding a flavor.
An essential part of Bubble Tea is milk. You can choose from an array of milks. Would you like dairy or non-dairy? Or you can add:

  • Soy Milk.
  • Almond Milk.
  • Coconut Milk
  • Lactose Free Creamers.

At Gong Cha shops in New York City and in New Jersey you can be certain that you’re being served fresh, dairy products and not those out of a can, such as evaporated or condensed milk.
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At Gong Cha Shops Pick Your Choice of Tea! You Can Choose From an Assortment of Teas – Which Include the Following:

  1. Green Tea
  2. Oolong
  3. Pu-erh
  4. Chai
  5. Black Tea
  6. and many more!

Many of these contain EGCG, which is an antioxidant typically found in green tea, which boosts your metabolism and releases belly fat cells and increases the liver’s fat burning abilities.
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You can have your tea entirely customized in a fashion that is entirely healthy. Check out Gong Cha shops in New York City and New Jersey, which offer the most healthiest alternatives to Bubble Tea.


College Football – Only 8 Teams now Vie for BCS Title Game, Sagarin reveals a new stand for rivals


After completing the 12th season of the football team, eight teams have been overlooked with difficulty. Louisiana Tech, Kenis, West Virginia, Missouri, Ohio, Arizona, Hawaii, and Boise State. Everyone has only one loss, except Kansas and Hawaii, are invincible.

Tuesday night (11-18-07) showed a new AP survey of Top 25: LSU, Kansas City 2nd, Missouri 3th, West Virginia 4th, Ohio, 5th, Arizona 7th, Hawaii 14th and Boise State 17th.

New BCS classifications on Monday (11-19-07) were shown at LSU first, Kansas 2, West Virginia 3, Missouri 4th, Ohio State 5th, Arizona State 6th, Hawaii 15th and Boise State 19th.

The MS vote is not influenced by sports writers and broadcasters on national championship players.

The BCS classifications determine the participants consisting of three components – the US Today Coaches Poll, the Harris Interactive College Football Survey, and the average desktop rankings, including the Sagarin ratings. Each component is calculated as one-third of the team BCS Total BCS score.

All of this sounds pretty boring, and it, however, has underestimated the status of BCS as millions of dollars are at stake. It's not just BCS's national championship game in New Orleans in 2008. On January 8, it generates huge amounts of money to teams and conferences.

It's also 4 other official BCS Bowl games. Sugar Bowl 2008 On the 1st of January, Rose Bowl, January 1, Fiesta Bowl, 2008 On January 2 and Orange Bowl, 3, 2008.

This year, the total payout of 5 BCS games will make $ 85 million and the total economic impact of the five host cities is estimated at more than $ 1.2 billion.

The bottom line is that at least 10 teams will compete in the BCS rankings. The NCAA's six largest conference champions – 1st place in the Atlantic Islands, the Great East, Big 10, Big 12, Pacific 10 (Pac 10) and South East Conference (SEC) – 5 BCS. The other arrows catch up with a complex set of qualifications.

One of these qualifications is that the team, which ends at the 6th general conference, completes the BCS final qualifying twelfth, automatically qualifies.

Knowing this clear fact, you can better understand why Hawaii (15th place) and the Boeing's country (19th place) are so much obstacle to their current BCS statistics, though Hawaii is a 10-0 record and Boise State 10-1 protocol.

West Atlantic Conference Commissioner Carl Benson spent the rest of his holidays trying to persuade "everyone and his dog" about the great victory over Hawaii against Navajo, now occupying 97th place with Sagarin at 119th Section 1a. Havana finally won 28-26 in the 45-minute field, 11 seconds away.

Given the polls and the status of BCS, nobody listened or believed Benson's words.

Taking into account that eight teams have left the pitch for the BCS National League matches, Hawaii and Beausei are fewer players who have no real chance. Fortunately, the two collide this weekend when Boise State leaves for Hawaii.

After the game a team will rise to BCS Standings, and the other will probably have greater dependence on vision and thought.

Hawaii and Boyz are huge teams and they will pay more attention when they start to play a decent competition. Sagarin arrives at night on the Hawaiian Islands (153th) and 122nd place in Boise Province (opponents' quality).

Taking into account that there are only 119 sections 1 a teams who believe that these two teams have won the bottom talent and deserve what they get.

6 The remaining 6 teams, together with the Hawaiian and Boeing region, are either unbeaten at only 1 loss, at least 5 out of 6 have played a better competition in finding a national title game.

Arizona State (6th place BCS, 9-1) occupies the 26th place with the best Sagarin power rating. Louisiana (1st place is BCS, 10-1), 27th place, West Virginia (3rd place in BCS 9-1) is 42nd, Missouri (4th place) place on BCS 10-1) 47th place, Ohio state 5th place, 11-1), 53th place, and Kansas City (2nd place, 11-0- the ninth place) is divided into 101 divisions at 119 divisions.

Kansas is a weak pavilion for 11 straight victories. Yes. Kansas can finish the BCS National Championship and win, but it is not wrong for Kansas to win its low schedule compared to its BCS rival.

If the state of Hawaii and Boise should be where they are in the penitentiary. Probably not, given the level of competition. Kansas has surpassed it. This is probably the case. All three can make me more believers if they continue to win from a better competition.

So, I think, please, please. Who has played the most difficult season of this season? Try the Warriors in Washington who are 3-7 years old.

I seriously doubt that Kansas, Hawaii, or Boise will have records that if they all played Ohio, UCLA, South California, Arizona and Orchestral Orchestras, all of them headed by Washington.

For this reason, Washington is in the N1 State National Schedule and Kansas City 101, Boise State 122nd and Hawaii 153.

Kansas this week marks the 12th North Division at Missouri. The winner is most likely to play in Oklahoma or Texas, the South Division of the Great Britain, the Great 12 title, and the place of BCS.

Copyright © 2007 Ed Bagley


Rethinking Instruments John F. Kennedy's inauguration address:


According to Aristotle, the speaker or the writer has three ways to convince his audience: The first type depends on the personality of the speaker. the second is about putting a certain frame of mind into the audience, the third is evidence or evidence that is presented with the words in the talk.

One of the most influential people for the past century was John F. John. Kennedy, a well-known publicist,

His well-known speeches show how his convincing writing or spoken speech art (rhetoric) is used by the author or the speaker to convey the meaning to the listener or the reader's contribution to the purpose or subject of the message of his compatriots

Definition of Terms.

1. Alliteration : Repetition of the sounds of the words at the beginning of the words that are close to each other.

2. History . A brief or indirect reference to a person, place, event, or transition in the literature or in the Bible, which is well-known by the reader

. Amplitude . Detailed clarification of a point in detail.

4. Analogy : Comparison between two things where more complex is explained more clearly.

5. Anapora Repetition of one or more words in the heading of continuous expressions, points or sentences

6. Anastrope Discriminatory order, emphasis

7. Antimetabole : Continuous or repetitive words or phrases are in force

8. Antithesis : Contrast in parallel expressions (not to disturb the usual use of the word, to denote "extreme contrary")

9. Assonance : Repetition of sound sounds between different horns

10. Asindetho Conclusion absence

11. Chiasmus : Book Order Separation from One Express to Another

12. Climax : It is constructed in the order of organization, significance, weight or acceleration of words, sentences or sentences

. Conduplication : Andrippos is like a repeat of the previous word, but it follows at the beginning of the next from the previous expression, sentence, or sentence, the key word (not just the last word). [1965]] Conssonance Repetition of identical sounds of two or more words in the near future

15. Ellps Any missing part of the word that is easily understood

16. Ethos : Makes some audience values ​​and believes it's good or right.

17. Hyperbole : Reasonable exaggeration, humor or accentation

18. Images The notion of light that prompts images of things on the mind, using one or more of the five sensations

19. Logos : reasoning logically, logically

20. Methane Declaration of qualifications – reducing or strengthening its celebration.

21. Metaphor . Instead of one subject, mean or identify.

22. Oxymoron : Contradictory terms or ideas are combined

23. Parallelism : words, expressions, episodes, or larger structures, putting them side by side and making them like that

. Paradox A statement that seems to contradict itself, but it turns out that it has a rational meaning.

25: Pathos : Appeals to Emotions

26: Personalization : Assigning Attributes to Human Attributes to an Invalid or Impressive Object

27. Polysyndeton : Putting it in the list in each word of the word

28. Duplication The word or phrase is used two or more times in close proximity

29. Rhetorical question . A registry effect was asked, which focuses on one point, no response is expected

30: Sententia . Point punctuation containing aphorism

31: Synthesis the grammatical structure of the sentence;

32. Triangular A number of parallel words, expressions, clauses or statements

33: Zeugma : Includes several similar rhetorical devices that include one or more parts of the word grammatically correct (or partly) of the word

Rhetoric devices present Alliteration [19659002] • "the same solemnity" (2nd sentence of paragraph 2)

• "Man is in his mortal hands" (1st sentence of paragraph 3)

• "for which our ancestors fought" Paragraph 3 Paragraph 3)

• "Friend and Enemy" (paragraph 4)

• Does "(paragraph 5

• "Pay any price, pay for any burden …" (paragraph 5)

• "freedom and success of freedom" (paragraph 5)

"loyal friends" (19th Edition)

• "colonial control" (1st sentence of paragraph 8)

(Article 19, paragraph 2)

• "break the massive misery bonds" (9 Paragraph 11]

• "his scrap can be operated" (paragraph 11)

• "dark authorizations" (Paragraph 12)

• Sustainable dissemination (paragraph 14)

• "Sincerity is always exposed" (paragraph 15)

• "peace-loving" from 9th to the last paragraph

• "carry the burden" (paragraph 6)

• "large and universal alliance" (paragraph 5)

• "power and

* Stamping

] • "I swear to you and to the Almighty." (Second sentence, second sentence)

• "Those who are stubbornly striving after the tiger" (last sentence of paragraph 8)

Fasten [19659002] • "Let both sides leave both sides let the two sides … let the two sides (paragraphs 16-19)

* analogy

• "those who are striving for


"All forms of human poverty and all forms of human life" (paragraph 3 of paragraph 1) "Not because Communists can do that not because we aspire to vote, but because it is right "(paragraph 1, paragraph 9)

•" Those old allies … those new states … These people. … our sister … To the world … these nations … "(paras. 7-12)

•" We do not always expect them to find our viewpoint. However, we always hope to find their strong support for their freedom "(Article 19, paragraphs 2 and 3)

•" Both sides are burdened with the value of modern weapons, both are rightly concerned with the deadly atom even though they both compete in changing the uncertain balance of terrorism that remains in the hands of the final war of humanity "(Paragraph 14)

•" Let both sides be left … Let both sides be left … "(16 -19)

• "Not as a weapon to bear Although we have armaments and not call for a military call, although we are desperate but we urge to bear the burden of long-lasting burdens during the year and year "(From 6th to last paragraph)

•" The first hundred days, neither will it end in the first thousand days, nor in the life of this administration, and even on this planet during our lifetime. "(From the 8th to the last paragraph)

Anastrophe [19659002•"Donotcount"[1]

• "We are in the position of the (Paragraph 6)

• "Ask" (paragraph 26)

* Antimetabole

• "Ask your country which you can do for yourself, ask what you can do for your country "(Chapter 3)

• We are never negotiating with fear. But let's not be afraid to negotiate. "(Article 19, paragraph 2)

* Conflict

•" We are watching not today's victory but a holiday of freedom, as well as a change. "[…] not by the state's generosity but by God" (second sentence of paragraph 2)

• "Support any friend, any enemy …" (paragraph 5)

• "Unified that we can not do in a number of cooperative enterprises. (Article 2, paragraph 2)

• "No … because not … because …" (paragraph 1 of paragraph 9) [19659002•"

• "Let both sides examine the issues that unite us to exchange the issues that divide us. "Paragraph 16

" Not a new balance of power, but a new world of law "(paragraph 20)

•" Not as a weapon of call … not a call for a military call. (Paragraph 19)

• "I do not cut this responsibility, I welcome it" (paragraph 2 of paragraph 25)

Ask what your country can do, ask what can [Paragraph 26]

• "Ask what America will do for you, but what can we do together for the freedom of mankind?" (paragraph 2)

* [ [9459003] Assonance

• "… sustained spread of a deadly atom" (Paragraph 14)


• "We will pay any price, any burden, meet any difficult support for any enemy, support any enemy. "(Paragraph 5)

•" explore the stars, conquer the deserts, destroy the diseases, and destroy the depths of the ocean "(Session 2, page 18 •

• "Energy, Faith, Loyalty" (paragraph 4)

* Chiasmus

• "Let's never be afraid of fear, but let's never be afraid to negotiate" (Article 19, paragraph 2 )

• "Ask your country to do for you, ask what you can do for your country" (paragraph 3 above) wtyun) 1965-9002] * Climax

• «It will not be completed within the first hundred days. Nor will it end in the first thousand days, nor in the life of this administration, nor even on this planet during our lifetime

Conduplication 19659002] • "helping them to help" (Chapter 19)

• "good deeds in good deeds" (1st sentence of paragraph 10)

• "Free men and free governments"

• "absolute power … absolute supervision … "(paragraph 17)

The sentence of paragraph 10

•" warplanes are far from peace (Paragraph 11) "Heritage"

• "Whether we want good or bad we are …" (Paragraph 5)

* [VicePresidentJohnsonMrPresidentMrJusticeJudgePresidentEisenhowerVicePresidentNielsenTumanPontificalVisittotheUnitedStatesofAmerica1960-OurclergyourcompatriotsTodayweseenotthetriumphoftriumphbuttheholidayoffreedomwhichsymbolizestheendaswellasthebeginningpointingtorenewalaswellasthechange"(Paragraphs1and2)

•" In a long history of the world, how many generations have been given the role of freedom in the greatest danger at its time? (Paragraph 4)

• "Our only true gift with a good conscience, the final judge of our affairs with history, let's go ahead of ourselves that we love the earth, asking for His blessing and help, but knowing that God's work on earth should be ours "(last sentence of the last paragraph) Hyperbole

" Let all nations know if we are good or bad, to pay any price, to burden, confront any difficulty, support any friend, oppose any enemy to ensure survival and freedom. "(Paragraph 5

* Images

•" Jah has been transmitted to Americans of the new generation "(paragraph 4) [19659002] * Logos

(1st sentence of the 1st sentence)

• "New States we welcome in the freedom" (1st sentence) • "for violating people's mass miserable bonds (19659002, 1st sentence)

• "This World Assembly of Sovereign States," Mia (Paragraph 11)

• "Nations That Make Their Adversary" (paragraph 12)

* Metanóva

• "Now the trumpet calls again we are not calling on us to bear arms, but for us it is not necessary as a weapon but also calls for war, although we are desperate, but the burden of years, years and years (from the 6th to the last paragraph)

* Metaore

• "We, our sufferings, heirs of the First Revolution" (1st sentence of paragraph 4

• The word from this time and place, friend and opponent […]

• "traveled through the tiger" (paragraph 3 of the 8th paragraph)

• "Bonds Bonds" (19659002 ) • "Evolution of hope" (paragraph 2 of paragraph 10)

• "master of origin"

• "poverty chains" (first sentence of paragraph 10) (last sentence of Article 19 )

• "Terrorism Balance" (paragraph 14)

• "And if the coastal line of cooperation can stop the jungle of suspicion (paras. 20)

• "Energy, faith, devotion, which we bring to this effort, will bring our country and all those who serve it, and the brilliance of that fire can really light up Oxymoron

• "But this is a peaceful revolution" (second sentence of paragraph 10)

* Parallelism

today is not the victory of the party, but the holiday of freedom, which symbolizes the end, as well as the change that means restoration and change (1965-9002) • "Let every nation know whether it is good or bad that we will pay any price, bear any load, meets any difficulty, supports any friend, no matter any enemy, to ensure survival and freedom of success. "(Paragraph 5)

•" Let both sides examine the issues that unite us. .. for the first time, formulate serious and clear suggestions for weapons testing and control … May both sides strive to invite the wonders of science … Let the two sides unite … "(Paragraphs 6-9)

•" Together we can do little in a number of cooperative enterprises.


"If a free society can not help the poor, it can not save the wealthy wealthy people" (Article 2, paragraphs 2 and 3) • "Only when we have enough hands is beyond doubt that we can be sure that they will never work" (Article 19, paragraph 2)


• "For those people, […]

•" She is a grave for young Americans who have responded to the call to the surrounding world "(from 7th to the end)

• "Energy, faith, dedication, which we bring to this end, will be published by our country and all its servants [from the 4th to the last paragraph] Personalization 1965-9002] • "where the strong are fair and weak, and peace is preserved" (paras. 9) (1965-9002) • "The final judge of our affairs with history" (second sentence in the last paragraph)


* Repetition

"Man holds all forms of human poverty in his mortal hands and

Rhetorical question

We can fight against these enemies by joining the great and global alliance, northern and south, east and west, which can provide a more productive life for all mankind. You will face these historic endeavors [5]


• "to overcome heavy loads … and [paragraph]

* Sintax

• "My fellow citizens of the world. ask what America will do for you, but what can we do for a united human? " The last moment

* Tronikon

• "Today, we watch not the victory of the party, but the holiday of freedom, which symbolizes the end, as well as the beginning, mentioning the renewal and change. "(2-րդ պարբերության 1-ին նախադասություն)

•« ոչ թե որպես զենք կրելու կոչ, թեեւ մենք պետք է սպառազինություն, ոչ թե որպես մարտական ​​կոչ կոչենք, չնայած մենք հուսահատված ենք, բայց կոչ ենք անում (1965-9002) Zeugma

• «Հիմա շեփորն է մեզ կրկին հրավիրում, ոչ թե որպես զենք կրելու կոչ, չնայած, մենք կարիք ունենք `ոչ որպես ճակատամարտի կոչ, չնայած մենք հուսահատված ենք, բայց կոչ ենք անում կրել բեռը … »(6-րդից մինչեւ վերջին պարբերություն)

Արդյունքների ներածում.

Ջոն Ֆ. Քենեդի իր բացման խոսքում օգտագործեց 33 տարբեր տեսակի հռետոր կան սարքեր:

Խոշոր վերլուծության միջոցով կարելի է տեսնել, որ ակնհայտ է, որ նա նպատակ ունի լսարանի ուշադրությունը հրավիրելու համար լսել եւ հասկանալ իր կետերը իմաստալից կերպով գրելու եւ խոսելու ոլորտներում: