A Walk in the Park at Newark

Although the state of New Jersey is relatively small, it offers some of the most unique places in the country, each rich in history and culture.

The oldest city in the state, and third in the country (behind New York and Boston), is the historically rich city of Newark. Known as the gateway to New Jersey, Newark is the financial, commercial and cultural nucleus of the Garden State. The city itself offers a rich variety of quality entertainment, dining, culture, and sports, which all combine to make Newark the ideal destination for your next driving holiday.

When it comes to getting to and around Newark, the best way to go is to hire a car from a rental company. The beauty of choosing this option is that you will have the freedom to do what you want, when you want and essentially, you can begin your journey from whiche destination in New Jersey that you like.

Once you arrive in Newark, you will find a city so wealth in history, heritage, culture and the arts that you will not know where to begin. Here are just a few hints to get you started:

1. Newark Museum

Newark is home to New Jersey's largest museum, appropriately called the Newark Museum. This is the perfect place to come to for an unforgettable experience of the arts and natural sciences. The museum is home to a staggering 80 galleries of world-class collections of artifacts from the past and present, depicting a wide range of cultures.

The collections feature everything from American to Asian art and African and classic collectibles. This allows you to get a taste of the globe, all under the one roof.

The museum is also home to the Victorian Ballantine House. This is the ultimate way to step back in time and experience a whole other era in time … an experience not to be missed!

Other features of the museum include the popular planetarium, which will transport you to another galaxy and allow you to experience the universe on a whole different level. Back out in daylight, take a leisurely stroll around the beautiful sculpture garden and marvel at the magnificently manicured gardens that give the museum an extra special touch.

2. City without Walls

The City without Walls is an urban gallery of emerging art, which shows some of the finest local artwork, as well as a select collection from across the nation. It is New Jersey's oldest not-for-profit alternative art space and provides the public with the opportunity to understand and enjoy challenging contemporary art.

The vast variety of exhibitions will allow you to experience a whole new perspective on art that will broaden your horizons and give you a greater understanding of the local culture.

3. Branch Brook Park

The oldest park in the US can be found right in the heart of Newark. Branch Brook Park was the first county park to be opened for public use in the US and then then, it has continued to lure visitors without fail. It has also been placed on both the New Jersey and the National registers of historic places.

The park stretches for a total of 4 miles and is the resting place of over 2000 cherry trees, which when blossoming, give the park a remarkable atmosphere that as like now else. The park also features a large lake and many meandering streams, which give the park a certain calming effect. Branch Brook Park is the perfect place to relax, take it easy, go for a light stroll or simply enjoy a good book!

4. New Jersey Performing Arts Center (NJPAC)

If you are seeking to discover some of the finest acts and performances in the country, then you will definitely find them at the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, which is located right in the heart of Newark.

The Center encompasses a 2,750 seat multi-purpose theater, a 500 seat intimate space, 2 restaurants and a new outdoor public plaza for the city. The NJPAC brings you the best in arts and entertainment from around the world, across the country and from the state of New Jersey. No matter what your fancy, there is sure to be something here you will like.

The center is easily accessible by car and offers plenty of safe and affordable parking, so there really is no excuse not to pay a visit!

As has been demonstrated, there is an extremely strong focus of culture and the arts in the city of Newark. This makes it the perfect place to visit if this is what you are seeking in your next holiday in New Jersey.

Father from Babylon to National Holiday

In the era of time, society was involved in the worship of ancestors. More specifically, both mothers and fathers, as well as their descendants have been honored as supporters of life and love. Although maternal and paternal roles play a role in gender mainstreaming, it turns into nourishing and feeding.

People have been respected for centuries since ancient times. Antropologic and archaeological studies have shown that the 4,000-year-old "Father and the 39 Days" welcome, during which a young Babylonian young man wants a long life and good health on his father's clay tablet. Other studies have shown that ancient Romans have honored their deceased fathers every February.

No, until centuries later, in the United States in the early 20th century, almost all writing entries were directed toward a woman who had been shown an organized or public manifestation of love. Certainly, what was behind the closed doors was another problem, but it has nothing to do with our reality.

There are many proposed ideas that relate to our present Father and the origin of the day. The first was a monument to several hundred men, many of whom were fathers who died in the US, Monogue in Venezuela until that time (1907). Mrs. Grace Gold Clayton suggested remembering and honoring all fathers to live and die on June 5 for provoking their father's and birthday observations. There was no time to prepare for the Church service, and it was there until 1908. July 19, the third Sunday of the month.

Mrs. Clayton could have been hurt by the Native American Day of Gramont, Virginia, using Miss Anna Jarvis & inspiration to honor all mothers, to live or to die.

The third theory assumes that Father was the Day of Ms. Sonora Smart Dodie, Spokane, Washington. Sonora was the youngest of six children who were born only by their father when her wife died during childbirth. He felt that he had dedicated himself to doing something that he wanted to do. Sonora approached the Spokane Ministerial Association and the Spokane Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in fulfilling her dream. Public support was immediate, giving its idea of ​​national certification. Politician William Jennings Brian was in his CD as President Woodrow Wilson's family in 1916. In 1924, President Calvin Kulich proposed Father and Son Day, a national holiday, and in 1966, President Lindon Baines Johnson (LBJ) proclaimed the national observation that will take place on the third Sunday of each June. 1972 President Richard Nixon has granted a holiday status on the occasion of the Fatherland Day.

DO YOU know?

Mother and Danny and Father connect each other. Both show red or white flowers. If your mother is alive, give her a red gray but if she crosses, place her white on her grave. In the same row red roses are for living fathers, and white roses represent the father who died.

Riser Tubes For Automatic Waterers

Most automatic waterers these days, that require a water line to be run below the frost line, will require a riser tube of some sort. By this, I mean a tube to center the vertical portion of the water line in. So what is the reason for this and what can be used for this riser tube?

The overall intention for a riser tube is to prevent frost from carrying over to the waterline, thus resulting in slushy water or a frozen line. The supply line touching the riser tube is the most common cause of the supply line freezing. A common misconception is that if the riser tube is filled with insulation, wood or other foreign material, this will prevent the freezing. Since frost can migrate, any fill in the riser tube will only increase the chances of the lines freezing.

So what should be used for a riser tube? Many things have been used, larger PVC pipes, concrete tubes, just to name a few. However neither of these materials will provide the ultimate protection to the automatic waterer during the winter.

Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa conducted a study during the winter of 1992-1993. Their studies indicated an insulated water supply line helped maintain temperatures above freezing. The same study showed insulated water supply lines with an 8″ inner diameter and an 12″ outer diameter provided optimum freeze protection and sufficient access for service. They found that this size would help retain the heat of the water as it went through the water line. This helped to prevent freeze-ups even when ambient temperatures were far below the freezing point. A second portion of this study also showed that there is no ground heat going up the thermal tube to the automatic waterer and ground heat cannot provide enough heat to keep the waterer from freezing.

Purchasing Left Over Tax Lien Certificates and Tax Deeds

I get a lot of questions from subscribers to taxlienlady.com that want to know how they can purchase tax liens or tax deeds through the mail. They specifically want to know about left over tax liens and tax deeds. These are tax lien certificates or tax deeds that are "left-over" from the tax sale. In other words no one bid at them at the sale and they were contracted of to the county, state, or municipality. In most states if the delinquent tax property is not sold at the tax sale, it is stuck of to the county or municipality. A few states allow the assignment of tax lien certificates or tax deeds to investors. There are pros and cons to purchasing left or assignment liens or deeds from the county.

On the positive side, there is no competition; you do not have to bid against other investors. For liens and redeemable deeds, you may be able to purchase a lien or deed in which the redemption period has already ended, or is close to being over, in which case you may wind up with the property. For some deed states, since the county, state, or municipality has already taken title to the property, you may not have to go through a title clearing process (quiet title or title certification process). You'll have to check with the county to find this out.

On the negative side, leftovers are usually not worth bidding on in the first place and that's why they were not sold at the sale. In smaller counties, and in states where the tax sales are conducted by the municipality (New Jersey, and the New England states) there is usually nothing worth that is left over. To find leftover tax liens or deeds, you have to go to counties that have very large lists (a few thousand properties) to begin with. And you'll have to sift through a lot of junk to find good properties.

Sometimes you can find a nugget of gold in the leftover tax sale list. I know a couple of tax lien investors in Arizona who do this regularly as well as a couple of tax deed investors (in Texas and Pennsylvania) who have done this. With more and more people becoming interested in tax lien and tax deed investing and going to the auctions, there are less leftovers available than there used to be. My advice is to use extreme caution and be extremely rigorous with your due diligence when purchasing leftover liens or deeds. I also believe that investing long distance in leftover liens or deeds is a mistake if you do not have someone that can physically look at the property for you.

If you would like to find out more about how to find that nugget of gold in the left tax sale list, this is the topic of Tax Lien Lady's next teleseminar interview with Brendan Monahan of Arizona Tax Liens on March 15, 2007. To register for the teleseminar at no charge go to.

Conversion of an alternate woman for a double acquaintance

Well, so you love your kids. They are not so bad when they teach them. Perhaps for a moment when you disoriented you can deal with seventy years of age to do the job. Your five-year-olds sometimes remember to feed the dog and watch iCarly's dual flights give you the freedom to survive the liberated childhood, never before.

But let's see it. The moments, which are few and far, on Tuesday, you do not appreciate your appreciation, and your descendants deceive you. What is the processed pair? Get the heck outta Dodge.

Go for a moment, think about that offer. You will greatly appreciate that the $ 250-kilogram student loan debt that everyone says is not stupid for you to leave. You have not even denied the combination of marijuana as this escape in 1989. Behind the roof of the Tri-Delt house house. You buy Bud Light fragile pennies only if one of the small angels requires a great orthodonture job before the height of the junior. For everything that is supposed to be good in the world, it's time for you to do it. I do not talk about flirting with the dark side at all, but it should be all about what is adult.

Now, as with acid refusals, you do not want to do it alone. Get the deer and the partner with some poor souls who are in the same boat as you. The best results come automatically by jumping over the moped and ending with the one who knows where, but if you are afraid of the box, then here is the list of my most exciting adventures, if only you let your monster flag fly.

# 1 – Road Trip
Remember, when you are 18, you and your 14-year-old girlfriend have drawn to state lines in West Virginia, a little lonely. Well, wake up, your partner's time to disconnect GPS and south to the south. Or to the North? Or in what direction does your inner Rasputin instructions? Getting out of the comfort zone makes the distressing queries clearer: & # 39; you were here Is shattered armadillo good? & # 39;

# 2 – Are you really going to eat?
The world is a delicious salad, which just waits on your plate, and says it's the places that serve nuances that only read in National Geographic. Steam lobster. The arena with women. Corn leaves – any city port, at least one secret dish facility designed to test your stomach endurance. Kuwait is out of the city's central streets, which are not written in English, where empty tables can be found through windows. This is my friend where you want to eat, and you will be surprised that over the years you have been sinking with people that your bread and taboo stories are with you, who prefer goats' food.

# 3 – There Is No Shut
Serious: I strongly advise you not to act as a camel. This is a great mixed duplicate action, if it's done correctly, and alienating others from your party is not recommended.

# 4- Tag, You & # 39; Individual Ownership Violation
For this one everyone should dress up for gray brown and gray jeans. Who cares if you buy them near the Old Navy? Then hit your local pain store (always buy the area as big box stores are incited by Satan) or your father to attack a number of colored sponges. When properly secured, find a blank wall where you can express your world-aware corner. Enjoy peaceful game on the neighbors & nbs; "Bob Johnson cheats on his taxes," or "My **** is bigger than yours." The winner is determined who is the last

# 5 – Build a tree planting
I know it sounds great, but you have to look at the big picture. Where to go? Do you have enough room to plunder salami? Can you get your business mortgage available? Are windows well placed to allow bottle missiles in the right direction?

# 6 – Roleplay
Go to the Knights and Grandmothers, in Distress and Directly to the Vanguard Art Sector. Start copying your faces, detailing some markets with emphasis, voila! Everyone can turn into a corner center to create a store. At the end of one hour, who puts a lot of money without arrest.

# 7- Do not drink and drive
This little piece of logic is going to # 3, because you do not want to be a junk. Nevertheless, hacking at the end of a taxi is not just the real winners, but instead open with two cars in a large car (it's not desirable to know someone) where everyone can feel ashamed of sleeping. . For an invisible car, the idea is true that your goal is off and you throw it in the morning before 4:00, before discovering how to open the door. You would not want to explain to a friend, you.

After some time you will have fun planning with friends.

It's a Joke, But Nobody's Laughing

So I was wrong. I'm willing to admit it. This makes twice. The first time, I was wrong about being wrong. But this time, I was wrong. The Big 12 Championship Game is a complete joke, and does more harm than good. Any conference championship game for that matter is nothing more than an extra game, with one team playing for national accolades, and the other playing the role of spoiler. It's a terrible idea, one that I backed, but nonetheless terrible.

I understand the concept behind the game, and it's a good one. For that, I can not fault the conference. It's pretty obvious to every observer that this game only serves to make money. I'm even okay with that. But it's costing the conference national championships, and with that, I'm not okay.

After the first nine championship games, 3 Big 12 teams lost their shot at a title in Nebraska (1996), Kansas State (1998) and Texas (2001), with Oklahoma making a full hearted attempt to chuck their title hopes in 2003. Out of those nine seasons, a Big 12 team was in five of those National Championship games. Nebraska went anyway in 2001, regardless of the Texas loss, so the conference only gains two national championship appearances. In nine years. Imagine a conference that places a representative in the national championship game seven times in its first nine years. Now forget it because it will never happen. The Big 12 Championship game insures that it will never happen.

To be honest, I liked the idea of ​​the championship game. For the most part, it seemed like a dramatic climax to a conference football season. But now I'm realizing what many people have known for a long time. There's only three outcomes. In the best case scenario, the two best teams in the conference eliminate each other. In the worst, David slays Goliath along with events at a national championship. In the boring but still bad, Goliath tramples David and everyone leaves unfulfilled.

Certainly I recognize, as do most, that Texas will probably roll Colorado on Saturday. The Longhorns have yet to find a worthy opponent this season, and the only time the games are actually entertaining is when someone manages to stifle them, a la Texas A & M last week. A game which UT won by eleven.

Colorado on the other hand is a despicable excuse for the North Division Champion. So, if you'll excuse me, I'll just refer to them as "the representative", as that does not make my face pinch up like I just swallowed a peeled lemon. Just when I thought Iowa State was looking up, they choked off for a second year. Fact is, they're still Iowa State, and they should not be competitive with the likes of Nebraska, Colorado and A & M. They should be absorbing home thrashings by Baylor. They proved it by playing a miserable fourth quarter against Kansas and Bret Culberson missing a field goal, for the second time, to lose the division. Before both of the Iowa State fans out there call for Dan McCarney's head, assemble a lynch mob for Culbertson. (Please do not really do this. I'm speaking figuratively, and save your emails for someone without a sense of humor.) The fact is Iowa State should not have disappointed anyone. The name that's scrawled across their jerseys is exactly who they are. They're the Iowa State Cyclones. And seeing as how they did Colorado by two touchdowns, what does that say about 'the representative'?

So Texas is facing a ridiculously overmatched opponent in Colorado, who they smacked around to the tune of 42-17 seven weeks ago. Texas just gets better, and Colorado just gets worse. Nothing went right for the Buffs in that embarrassing home loss to the Huskers, and Texas did just enough to sneak past the Aggies. By eleven points.

So now all that stands between Texas and the Rose Bowl is the team that hole that 2001 national championship shot from them. The same team they beat earlier in that 2001 2001 season 41-7. They've got nothing to gain and everything to lose while the conference show runners stuff their pockets and continue to lose sight of the big picture. Just like they did in 2001.

Imagine if UT were to lose this game. It would be a virtual Armageddon for college football both at the conference and national levels. Southern Cal would play … LSU, Penn State and Virginia Tech would each have a legitimate gripe if they were left out of the Rose Bowl, further strengthening the push for a playoff. Texas would slip to a BCS at-large or worse, the Cotton Bowl. Just imagine all those Texas Tech fans with their tickets to watch the Longhorns face some SEC school. In that scenario, every Big 12 school slides a bowl or two. The Holiday would be illegally to take Texas Tech again, so they'd slip to the Alamo Bowl. Colorado would be facing an imminent slaying at the hands of Ohio State or Oregon in the Fiesta Bowl. Iowa State, Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri and Nebraska would be in bowl limbo, floating through a netherworld of possibilities and truths. It would be utter chaos.

Putting teams in the national championship should be the primary goal of the conference. Only when the conference is floundering, and unable to place a team in the national championship is a conference championship a good idea. So let's take Baylor and Iowa State and ship them to the Big East. Then the Big 12 continues under the same name, similar to the Big 10 having eleven teams. Law of rates, you know? Then we can chuck this crappy, uninteresting, costly game into the 'ideas that never took' heap, where it will rest quietly with Crystal Pepsi, the Concorde, cold fusion and customer service.

Affirmative Defenses to Foreclosure Based on Lack of Standing and Fraud For Foreclosure Answers

Homeowners who wish to file answers asserting affirmative defenses in response to a lender's complaint of mortgage foreclosure should take note of recent legal developments involving some major banks that may increase the likelihood of success in stopping foreclosure. Recently, several of the country's largest banks have acknowledged that their documentation of many loans is faulty. Some of the subject documents in question are essential to a financial institution's ability to lawfully foreclose upon a homeowner.

Among other defects that have recently come to light, it now appears that thousands of mortgages were transferred between financial institutions without proper documentation. As a result of missing assignments and / or other documents, many financial institutions lack evidence of their legal standing that is required for them to pursue judgments of foreclosure.

In judicial foreclosure states (for example, Florida, New York, and New Jersey, among others), homeowners who wish to raise lack of standing as affirmative defenses to foreclosure should set forth the lack of standing defense in both their answer to the foreclosure complaint , as well as in a motion to dismiss. In non-judicial foreclosure states (such as California and Nevada) homeowners may file complaints and orders to show cause to stop foreclosure sales.

Recently, a trial court in New York ruled that a plaintiffiff-financial institution was not entitled to an order of reference (an essential component of any foreclosure proceeding in New York) because it was unable to prove that it was the lawful holder of the note and mortgage at the time that the foreclosure case had been filed. In particular, the court noted that there was no evidence that the underlining promissory note had either been delivered to the plaintiffiff or a proper written assignment prior to the foreclosure action.

Homeowners with variable rate mortgages may wish to consider including the affirmative defense of fraud in their answer to a foreclosure complaint. Such defenses are specifically promising given the recent settlements of several financial institutions in connection with allegations that variable rate mortgages were deceptively packaged and characterized, without full disclosure of their significant risks and pitfalls.

As irregularities in the foreclosure industry has become increasingly publicized, homeowners are more likely to succeed in their efforts to convince courts to stop foreclosure. However, in order to succeed, it is essential for homeowners to become actively involved in the legal process by filing appropriate foreclosure defense forms, including foreclosure answers and motors for temporary restraining orders.

Tax Income Investing ABCs

Are you interested in your sum from 6 to 50%, which is secured with property tax against real estate?

Author Joel S. Moskowitz explains how investors can buy less-known tax certifications that pay high yields in his book, "The 16 percent Solution"

As a bonus, although the author warns that it rarely happens, an investor can deceive and buy property. Nevertheless, he warns that property owners are usually frustrated, so investors should only be satisfied with high yields.

What is a tax certificate?

When the real estate owner does not pay property tax, 27 states and 1,152 cities and states are selling tax certification certificates to investors. The government immediately gets its property tax. The investor obtains tax collection, which is then secured by real estate.

Tax certificate certificate is different from state law. Arizona's highest interest rate is 16 percent, Florida pays 18 percent, and Michigan's 50 percent in the second year. If the owner of the property does not return the property by the investor, paying the return tax at high interest rate, the investor obtains the title and possession of the property.

New investors can start small, perhaps investing several hundred or several thousand dollars, buy more property tax certificates. Although not all states are smart enough to speed up tax collections, after reading this book they will know why they need it.

At the time of writing, countries with tax credits include Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Hampshire, York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia and Wyoming.

The book lists the interest rates and the state-state order in the absolute annex. For those real estate investors who want high profits without a physical management asset, this new book shows how to do it. It also explains a few barriers that you can avoid and how to get the best certificates with the highest possible profits.

On the scale of 10 to 10, this wonderful book is about 10.

How Actor Ellen Dolan Got Her Dream Job on As the World Turns

Susan Dansby: Hi, this is Susan Dansby, and I’m here with Ellen Dolan of As the World Turns.

Ellen Dolan was born and raised in Iowa, earned her BA and MFA degrees in theatre from the University of Iowa. While working toward her Bachelor’s degree, she spent a summer studying dramatic arts at the Webber Douglas Academy in London.

Her stage career began in repertory theater with such roles as Katrin in Mother Courage.Other regional productions such as Maggie in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, May in How the Other Half Loves, and Cleya in The Nerd. She was a founding member of the Studio 3 Group, and is currently a member of the Workshop Theatre Group.

Off-Broadway she starred in Sophistry and I Forgive You, Ronald Regan, and has worked in episodic television on such shows as Law and Order SVU.

Ellen joined As the World Turns as policewoman, Margo Hughes, in November 1989, having been asked to consider the part by the late Doug Marland, who was the head writer for the CBS daytime drama.

Marland had created Dolan’s former role of Maureen Bauer on Guiding Light. Dolan debuted on Guiding Light in 1982, portraying the character of Maureen Bauer for the next four years.

Her additional television credits include the made-for-television movies, Mother’s Day, Mothers, Daughters and Lovers with Helen Shaver, and Dancing with Danger with Cheryl Ladd.

So, hello, Ellen Dolan! How are you?

Ellen Dolan: Okay, now I can talk.

Susan Dansby: Yes, you can talk.

Ellen Dolan: Thank you! Enough about me. Let’s get to me.

Susan Dansby: Well, the big question for this interview is: How Did You Get That Job? Doug Marland approached you about playing Margo. How did that come about? Did he just call you one day?

Ellen Dolan: Yeah. My mother had just passed away. And I moved out to Los Angeles for the first time. And you should never leave town after your mother dies. You’re not in a very good frame of mind.

But there I was out in LA, and I was doing what I could and getting along. And my car had been stolen, so I kind of moved further into the Hollywood area. And I was going to tough it out.

And all of a sudden, I got a call from Doug Marland saying, “Would you consider doing this role of Margo because Hillary Bailey Smith [original Margo] really is going to leave this time.” Because she’d been planning to leave, I guess, several different times, and just never did. Because who’d want to leave that role?

But he asked me if I would do it. And I said, “Yeah. I would love to.” I’d been out in LA for three months, and I thought it really is time to come home, because I’m not ready yet.

So then I found out, “Well, okay, so we’ll set up a test for you.”

It was like, “A test? A test?!” I felt like Joey in Friends. “What do you mean you want to test me? I AM Dr.-So-and-so.”

So I was like, ‘Oh, okay, testing.’ So, I walked in; and it was the first time I ever saw Scott Holmes [played Tom Hughes on ATWT]. And he was just joyful and fun and lovely. And I was the first person to be put down on tape with him. And badda-bing, badda-boom. I got it.

Susan Dansby: What was that scene about?

Ellen Dolan: I think it was the scene where she had to tell him that Adam wasn’t his son.

Susan Dansby: Wow.

Ellen Dolan: Because later on, when I was doing it, we had scenes where we had to tell Hal that Adam was his son.

How The Jersey Barriers Came To Be Known

Several variations of concrete road dividers were introduced from time to time under various names, ever since the first model was successfully deployed in the year 1946, on the Grapevine Grade, a risky mountainous stretch on the US route 99 in California. These first experimental models were precast, concrete parabolic median barriers, 26 inches high and 28 inches wide and weighed 3000 lbs.

However, the name Jersey barriers became known only after New Jersey highway engineers installed them on the accident-prone Jugtown Mountain section of US Route 22 in rural Hunterdon County. The 19 inches wide and 30 inches wide barriers with parabolic concave faces on either side would clear the mudguards if the vehicle swiped against it; and the smooth parabolic concave surface would redirect the errant vehicle back into the traffic flow without bringing it to a sudden halt. However, despite the number of accidents reduced, they still occurred when trucks scaled these barriers.

After experimenting with several specifications of height and width on the median barriers, New Jersey highway engineers not aware the reduction in accident rates, using taller barriers. They finally settled on the 32 inches high and 24 inches wide parabolic median concrete barriers in 1959, and other state highways followed suit to adopt these measures, which remained the standard specification for barriers for many decades.

Past decades saw the introduction and deployment of different types of barriers and the search for the perfect barrier continues. Here is a look at the innovative designs on median barriers, some of which continue to be in use.

GM barriers or GM shape: These barriers were the first ones to be crash tested before deployment. However, because smaller cars tended to roll over after impact with the carriers, this design was discontinued.

California K-Rails: K-Rails are temporary concrete barriers for work zones but if installed using pins- loops connections and 4 stakes, these may be semi-permanent structures for a period of 2-5 years. However, removing the barriers from paved surfaces is expensive and poses workers to risks.

F-shaped barriers: These barriers are almost identical in function to the Jersey barrier and the only difference is the break point; which is lower in the F-shape barrier and sets at 10 inches from the road as compared to the 13 inches break point of the Jersey barrier. The low breakpoint in the F-shaped barriers reduces lifting of the vehicles and reduces chances of roll over, but the Jersey barrier continues to be the most favored design for crash tests and meets the criteria laid down by the Federal Highway Administration.

Constant slope barriers: Simple vertical barriers do not lift vehicles, so there are no chances of a roll over; but the flip side is the possibility of sheet metal damage to the vehicle, injuries to the occupants and the vehicle is not redirected on to the road. Texas and California have developed the constant slope barriers with increased heights, wider bases. The Texas constant slope barrier stands at 42 inches with a constant slope that makes an angle of 10.8 degrees to the vertical at ground level; the California type 60 constant slope barriers have a height of 56 inches and slope at an angle of 9.1 degrees to the vertical.

Crash tests reveal that these perform as well as the New Jersey barriers and F-shaped barriers respectively. The new safer designs incorporating the increased height specifications, inexpensive installation and unchrained performance of constant slope barriers even after road resurfacing make them a preferred choice. These barriers are now being deployed as permanent structures.

Heavy vehicle median barrier: The New Jersey Turnpike Authority (NJTA) effectively crash tested a 42 inches high median concrete barrier using NJ shape forms, with heavily reinforced tops having a thickness of 12 inches. The vertical reveal is covered with asphalt to anchor the barrier firmly so it does not overturn on impact. Heavy vehicles like tractor-trailers are contained and redirected upright on to the road with these barriers.

Concrete Step Barrier: High performance concrete step barriers are approved for roads in the UK and Ireland. This model of median barrier developed in Holland has several advantages such as zero crossover accidents, reduced fatalities; low maintenance cost, maintenance free for 50 years, and can contain all types of vehicles.

Ontario Tall Wall: Way back in 1968, highway authorities in Ontario, Canada crash tested this taller version of the New Jersey barrier at different test levels and it was way ahead of its time then. Gradually over the years as larger vehicles hit the roads, the barrier heights increased to 42 inches. Another feature of this tall barrier was that it cut off glare from oncoming vehicle headlights.

Plastic Jersey barriers: Rotationally molded plastic Jersey barriers replaced concrete barriers, where it was necessary to deploy the barriers temporarily for short periods at work zones, building construction sites, water and sewer projects, during natural disasters to regulate pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The barbers made from pretreated, heavy-duty polyethylene are able to withstand inclement weather conditions and require almost zero maintenance. Other important features that make these barriers popular are portability and lightweight. These barriers are easily stackable making transportation and assembly an easy task. However, for added strength sand, water or any other ballast materials are filled into the barriers. The brightly colored plastic jersey barriers are highly visible and exceptionally warn of any imminent danger.

The Federal Highway Administration allows usage of plastic jersey barriers along with the necessary reinforcement kit as replacement for concrete barriers, only after these have been crash tested at the specified test levels. Otherwise, these plastic barricades are linked end-to-end, to form a wall and used as channelizers to direct pedestrian traffic or for guiding vehicular traffic near work zones. These are used as barricades for crow control at event, races, as security installations at airports, parking areas, government buildings and to prevent access to any specific area.

In general, Jersey barriers, both plastic and concrete structures have helped in reducing the number of accidents on highways, roads, and work zones. Moreover, research continues to discover designs and materials that will absolutely give us the perfect barrier; until then the Jersey barriers will continue to dominate our highways.